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2018-01-12

Kostnader för demens

Demenscentrum: Demens i siffror

Hur vanligt är demens?

SVERIGE
Ca 160 000 personer beräknas ha en demenssjukdom,
varje år insjuknar ca 25 000.

Prognos för antalet personer med demenssjukdom,
år 2020: 175 000 och år 2030: 230 000.

 Källa: Demenssjukdomarnas samhällskostnader
i Sverige 2012, Socialstyrelsen

VÄRLDEN
I världen lever ca 47 miljoner med en demenssjukdom. Varje år
insjuknar 10 miljoner, det motsvarar en person var tredje sekund. 

Prognos för antalet personer med demenssjukdom,
år 2030: 75 miljoner och år 2050: 131 miljoner.

Källa: World Alzheimer Report 2015,
Alzheimer´s Disease International

Var bor personer med demenssjukdom?

Ca 94 000 personer med demenssjukdom bor i egen lägenhet/villa.
Ca 66 000 bor på demenboende eller annat äldreboende (särskilt boende).

Källa: Se Socialstyrelsen ovan

Vad kostar demens samhället?

Det totala samhällskostnaderna för demenssjukdomar uppgår till
närmare 62,9 miljarder kr som är fördelade enligt följande:

  1. Kommuner (bl a särskilt boende, hemtjänst):
    49,2 miljarder kr
  2. Informell vård (anhörigas obetalda vård):
    10,6 miljarder kr
  3. Landsting (bl a läkemedel och läkarbesök):
    2,9 miljarder kr
  4. Produktionsbortfall (lämnat arbetslivet p g a demens):
    0,1 miljarder kr

Källa: Se Socialstyrelsen ovan

 

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2018-01-12

Vetenskap och Praxis

SBU ger ut skriften Vetenskap och Praxis som är en alldeles utmärkt skrift om medicinsk tillämpning. I senaste numret finns artikeln 

Policy utreds för behandling utanför ordinarie hälso- och sjukvård

"Hur ska patientsäkerhet och patientinflytande tillgodoses utanför den gängse hälso- och sjukvården? Det är
kärnfrågan i en pågående statlig utredning om så kallad alternativ, komplementär och integrativ medicin.

Många människor söker vård och behandling utanför ordinarie hälso- och sjukvård. Enligt en rapport från Statistiska centralbyrån 2006 hade var tionde person under loppet av tolv månader behandlats för kroppsligt eller psykiskt besvär av ”alternativ behandlare”, vilket i den rapporten innefattar naprapat, akupunktör, zonterapeut och homeopat. 

Våren 2017 beslutade regeringen att tillsätta en särskild utredning om patientsäkerhet och inflytande i verksamheter utanför så kallad etablerad vård. "

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2018-01-10

Medicin mot Alzheimer som verkar fungera

Wikipedia: J147 is an experimental drug with reported effects against both Alzheimer"s disease and ageing in mouse models of accelerated aging.[1][2][3][4]

The approach that lead to development of the J147 drug was to screen candidate molecules for anti-aging effects, instead of targeting the amyloid plaques. It is contrary to most other approaches to developing drugs against Alzheimer"s disease that target the plaque deposits in the brain.[5]

The J147 drug is also reported to address other biological aging factors, such as preventing the leakage of blood from microvessels in mice brains.[5] The development of J147 follows the chemical pharmacological way, contrary to biological ways that exploit e.g. use of bacteriophages.[6][7]

Enhanced neurogenic activity over J147 in human neural precursor cells has its derivative called CAD-31. CAD-31 is enhancing the use of free fatty acids for energy production by shifting of the metabolic profile of fatty acids toward the production of ketone bodies, a potent source of energy in the brain when glucose levels are low.

ScienceDaily: Alzheimer’s drug turns back clock in powerhouse of cell
Researchers identify molecular target of J147, which is nearing clinical trials to treat Alzheimer’s disease

The experimental drug J147 is something of a modern elixir of life; it"s been shown to treat Alzheimer"s disease and reverse aging in mice and is almost ready for clinical trials in humans. Now scientists have solved the puzzle of what, exactly, J147 does. They report that the drug binds to a protein found in mitochondria, the energy-generating powerhouses of cells. In turn, they showed, it makes aging cells, mice and flies appear more youthful.

Dagens medicin: Lovande fynd för antikropp mot alzheimer

Nu kommer resultat som stärker bilden om att antikroppen aducanumab effektivt minskar mängden amyloida plack hos patienter med tidigare former av alzheimer, enligt en fas I-studie i Nature.

– Det är väldigt lovande resultat. Ingen antikropp har tidigare minskat mängden amyloid beta så mycket och så tydligt, säger professor Kaj Blennow, institutionen för neurovetenskap och fysiologi, Göteborgs universitet.

Han påpekar att aducanumab, en human monoklonal antikropp, för närvarande är den hetaste läkemedelskandidaten för att bromsa utvecklingen av Alzheimers sjukdom.

– Förhoppningarna är stora. Det ska bli spännande att ta del av kommande resultat från fas 3-studien om några år, säger han.

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2017-12-18

Lipoxin

PubMed: Astrocyte-derived lipoxins A4 and B4 promote neuroprotection from acute and chronic injury. 2017-11-06

Astrocytes perform critical non-cell autonomous roles following CNS injury that involve either neurotoxic or neuroprotective effects. Yet the nature of potential prosurvival cues has remained unclear. In the current study, we utilized the close interaction between astrocytes and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the eye to characterize a secreted neuroprotective signal present in retinal astrocyte conditioned medium (ACM). Rather than a conventional peptide neurotrophic factor, we identified a prominent lipid component of the neuroprotective signal through metabolomics screening. The lipoxins LXA4 and LXB4 are small lipid mediators that act locally to dampen inflammation, but they have not been linked directly to neuronal actions. Here, we determined that LXA4 and LXB4 are synthesized in the inner retina, but their levels are reduced following injury. Injection of either lipoxin was sufficient for neuroprotection following acute injury, while inhibition of key lipoxin pathway components exacerbated injury-induced damage. Although LXA4 signaling has been extensively investigated, LXB4, the less studied lipoxin, emerged to be more potent in protection. Moreover, LXB4 neuroprotection was different from that of established LXA4 signaling, and therapeutic LXB4 treatment was efficacious in a chronic model of the common neurodegenerative disease glaucoma. Together, these results identify a potential paracrine mechanism that coordinates neuronal homeostasis and inflammation in the CNS.

Dessutom var LXB4 skydd av neuron effektiv i en kronisk modell av den vanliga neurodegenerativa sjukdomen glaukom.

Changes in Retinal N-Acylethanolamines and their Oxylipin Derivatives During the Development of Visual Impairment in a Mouse Model for Glaucoma. 2016

Neurons are especially susceptible to oxidative damage, which is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative disease. Certain N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) have been shown to protect neurons from oxidative stress. Since glaucoma may be considered a neurodegenerative disorder and the survival of retinal neurons could also be influenced by N-acylethanolamines, our goal was to quantify changes in certain N-acylethanolamine species and their oxylipin derivatives in the retina of a mouse model for glaucoma. We also sought to identify relationships between these and parameters of glaucoma disease development, specifically intraocular pressure, visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity. Five N-acylethanolamine species and three NAE oxylipin derivatives were quantified in retina from young and aged DBA/2Crl mice. N-Acylethanolamines and NAE-oxylipins in retinal extracts were quantified against deuterated standards by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels (nmol/g dry weight) of N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; NAE 20:4) were significantly (p = 0.008) decreased in aged (2.875 ± 0.6702) compared to young animals (5.175 ± 0.971). Conversely, the anandamide oxylipin, 15(S)-HETE ethanolamide (15(S)-HETE EA), was significantly (p = 0.042) increased in aged (0.063 ± 0.009) compared to young animals (0.039 ± 0.011). Enzymatic depletion of the anandamide pool by 15-lipoxygenase and consequent accumulation of 15(S)-HETE ethanolamine may contribute to decreased visual function in glaucomatous mice. Since N-acylethanolamines effectively attenuate glaucoma pathogenesis and associated visual impairment, our data provides additional rationale and novel targets for glaucoma therapies.

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2017-12-16

astrocytes lipoxins glaucoma

Googling

Their research focused on the role of retinal astrocytes — cells that are found in the retina and optic nerve — which are important for developing and maintaining healthy eyes. They discovered that retinal astrocytes release powerful molecules called lipoxins A4 and B4 that act locally to dampen inflammation and help coordinate protective signaling for neurons in the eye. Surprisingly, they determined that astrocytes produce less of these lipoxins in eyes affected by glaucoma.

Stanford: Researchers investigate new treatment for glaucoma 2017-11-13

Using rodent models, Gronert and fellow researchers found that inflammation-regulating lipid mediators known as lipoxins, secreted from star-shaped cells known as astrocytes, stopped the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in rats and mice with glaucoma. Ganglion cells are the neurons of the retina and optic nerve that receive information from photoreceptors.

Specifically, researchers found that astrocytes, which help maintain brain function and form the nerve fiber layer of the retina and optic nerve, release therapeutic biological agents known as lipoxins A4 and B4, but only when the astrocytes are at rest and maintaining nerve function.

The study authors are excited at the prospect of further investigations into the therapeutic benefits and mechanisms of lipoxins A4 and B4 and their potential to stop or reverse neural damage. They have jointly filed a patent application for use of lipoxins A4 and B4 to treat glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases. Their eventual goal is to test the lipoxins as drugs in humans.

Berkeley: Scientists discover potential treatment to stop glaucoma in its tracks 2017-11-06

Astrocyte-derived lipoxins A4 and B4 promote neuroprotection from acute and chronic injury

PubMed: Astrocyte-derived lipoxins A4 and B4 promote neuroprotection from acute and chronic injury 2017-11-06

Lipoxins are produced by astrocytes in the retina and are essential to maintaining the health of the optic nerve.

Professor Gronert explained that lipoxins are well-developed drug targets because of their potent anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions.

“Lipoxins as neuroprotective drugs could rapidly move from the bench to the clinic,” he added.

Further research will focus on understanding why astrocytes turn off the secretion of neuroprotective signals and define their mechanism of action.

Lipoxin-based drugs for the treatment of glaucoma and other neurodegenerative conditions could then be developed and tested in pre-clinical models, Professor Gronert highlighted.

“The ultimate goal is to move lipoxin-based drugs to the clinic as quickly as possible,” he concluded.

Association of Optometrists: NEW TREATMENT APPROACH FOR GLAUCOMA 2017-11-15

 

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2017-12-16

Potential treatment to stop glaucoma in its tracks

Lipid mediators may play key role in combatting neurodegenerative diseases

Date: November 6, 2017
Source: University of California - Berkeley
Summary: Vision scientists have discovered that naturally occurring molecules known as lipid mediators have the potential to halt the progression of glaucoma, the world"s second-leading cause of blindness.

Vision scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Toronto have discovered that naturally occurring molecules known as lipid mediators have the potential to halt the progression of glaucoma, the world"s second-leading cause of blindness.

Their findings, to be published Nov. 6 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, mark a major step forward in the pursuit of a cure for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease in which fluid buildup in the frontal eye causes irreversible damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.

At present, there is no cure for glaucoma, which is estimated to affect 80 million people worldwide.

"Not only could this discovery lead to drugs to treat glaucoma, but the same mechanism, and options for prevention, may be applicable to other neurodegenerative diseases," said study senior author Karsten Gronert, professor of optometry and chair of vision science at UC Berkeley.

Using rodent models, Gronert and fellow researchers found that inflammation-regulating lipid mediators known as lipoxins, secreted from star-shaped cells known as astrocytes, stopped the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in rats and mice with glaucoma. Ganglion cells are the neurons of the retina and optic nerve that receive information from photoreceptors.

"We"ve taken something everyone assumed was anti-inflammatory, and found that these same small molecules play a key role in neuroprotection, which is really exciting," said study co-senior author John Flanagan, dean and professor of optometry. Much of the study was conducted at UC Berkeley.

Specifically, researchers found that astrocytes, which help maintain brain function and form the nerve fiber layer of the retina and optic nerve, release therapeutic biological agents known as lipoxins A4 and B4, but only when the astrocytes are at rest and maintaining nerve function.

"It is commonly assumed that astrocytes activated by injuries release stress signals that kill off ganglion cells in the retina, causing optic nerve damage," said Flanagan. "However, our research discovered that astrocytes that are triggered by injury actually turn off novel neuroprotective signals that prevent optic nerve damage."

Researchers discovered secretions of lipoxins A4 and B4 in resting astrocytes in culture in the retina and optic nerve head. To test their potential as a treatment, they administered the lipoxins to rodents eight weeks after the onset of glaucoma-like damage and neurodegeneration.

At 16 weeks, they gauged electrical activity in the rodents" ganglion cells, among other measures, and found that lipoxin B4 in particular stopped the cells" degeneration.

"This little-known lipid mediator has shown the potential to reverse cell death," Gronert said. "We know of no drug that can do this."

For decades, pharmaceutical companies have searched for neuroprotective drugs to treat glaucoma and other disorders marked by the death of nerve cells such as Alzheimer"s, Parkinson"s and ALS. Glaucoma is by far the most prevalent of these neurodegenerative diseases.

"At the same time, lipoxins have been explored as promising drug targets for treating inflammatory diseases, but nobody has been looking at them as being neuroprotective," Gronert said.

At present, the treatment option for glaucoma is to lower ocular pressure, but there are no effective treatments for preventing or stopping the neurodegeneration of glaucoma, which is irreversible and eventually leads to blindness, Flanagan said

The study authors are excited at the prospect of further investigations into the therapeutic benefits and mechanisms of lipoxins A4 and B4 and their potential to stop or reverse neural damage. They have jointly filed a patent application for use of lipoxin A4 and B4 to treat glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases. Their eventual goal is to test the lipoxins as drugs in humans.

"These naturally occurring small lipids have great potential as therapies because they may play a fundamental role in preventing other neurodegenerative diseases. And that"s hugely significant, " Flanagan said.

In addition to Flanagan and Gronert, Jeremy Sivak, associate professor of ophthalmology at the University of Toronto, is a senior author on the study. The study"s co-lead authors are Izhar Livne-Bar of the University of Toronto and Jessica Wei and Hsin-Hua Liu of UC Berkeley. Other co-authors are Samih Alqawlaq, Gah-Jone Won and Alessandra Tuccitto of the University of Toronto.

 

Potential treatment to stop glaucoma in its tracks

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2017-08-29

Hjärnfonden

Man kan inte bidra till alla goda initiativ, Hjärnfonden är ett initiativ som vi stöder.

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2017-08-29

Bilavgifterna sänks i Danmark

Denmark’s government proposed a broad range of tax cuts that will hit all income groups, make it cheaper to save toward retirement and reduce levies on cars.

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-08-29/denmark-targets-deep-cuts-to-reduce-world-s-biggest-tax-burden

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2017-08-29

Jag behöver pausa ibland - Stretchly får hjälpa mig

Jag glömmer bort tiden när jag sitter vid datorn och utvecklar program, läser allt mellan himmel och jord och lyssnar på bra föredrag och god musik. 

För att få hjälp att komma ihåg pauser så har jag kopierat hem gratisprogrammet stretchly break time reminder app.

"To learn more about all of stretchly features and about ways how you can help it, visit it's homepage."

Jag återkommer med erfarenheterna efter en tid.

https://hovancik.net/stretchly/

https://github.com/hovancik/stretchly/releases

Alternativ till stretchly

Tag: Hälsa

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2017-08-11

Rätt att utvisa afghanska ungdomar

I Aftonbladet protesterar några mot att afghanska ungdomar utvisas från Sverige om de inte fått uppehållstillstånd och anses ha fyllt 18 år.


Jag tycker att det är rätt att de återvänder till sitt hemland, även om de fötts i t.ex. Iran. Avgörande är den nationalitetsprövning som görs i Sverige.


Skälet att de ska få stanna för att det är krig i Afghanistan är märkligt. Den afghanska armén behöver fler soldater och de som fyllt 18 år är lika gamla som svenska rekryter. Ett lands medborgare är skyldiga att stödja sitt land mot främmande arméer.


Afghanska ungdomar som ansluter till sin armé kan många gånger få god utbildning, t.ex av brittiska trupper. Denna film visar hur den afghanska armén ser sig själv, British Troops To Train Afghan Army For 'As Long As It Takes'

Wikipedia har en läsvärd artikel om Försvarsuniversitetet. Utbildningen är fyrårig. Kvinnor utbildas sedan 2011.

Det bör kunna vara en riktigt bra möjlighet för en afghan att återvända till sitt land med vissa erfarenheter från Sverige och sedan få möjlighet till god utbildning och göra en insats för sitt land.


(Publicerat i Facebook)

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2017-08-11

En ny blogg

Idén bakom denna blogg är att

  • Jag ska kunna publicera funderingar kring sådant som inte passar in i övriga webbar
  • jag endast ska använda produktionsversionen av Org, och på så sätt bli ett extra teststeg.
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2018-01-10

Medicinska källor

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2018-01-01

Rohingya

Träffade Jan Wihilborg på ett party. Han är vice ordförande för svenska Rohingya och undrade om jag ville vara med. Och det känns helt rätt. Angeläget! Rohingya-folket behandlas extremt illa.

THE SWEDISH ROHINGYA ASSOCIATION (Facebook)

Svenska föreningens blogg

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